Transitioning into Fully Blended Learning: A Model for Faculty Blended Learning Adoption
Keywords:Blended learning, grounded theory, motivation, adoption, constant comparative analysis, developing countries
Higher education institutions the world over is turning to Blended Learning (BL) as the preferred teaching and learning delivery approach. However, to attain campus-wide adoption requires an understanding of the influencing factors that motivate academics towards teaching in BL mode. Given this context, this paper presents findings from a qualitative study that investigates the lived experiences of academics as they adopt BL for teaching and learning in a Ghanaian university. Adopting a Grounded Theory as the methodology for this research within a sequential qualitative research design, data was collected from multiple sources. Primary data was obtained from in-depth interviews of 22 academics carried out to understand how they construct and navigate the BL teaching experiences. Secondary data was obtained from policy documents, faculty training signing sheets and Learning Management Systems (LMS) activity logs. The data was analysed using the constant comparative method and thematic analysis and triangulated to organize the themes and concepts for the proposed model. The outcome of the analytical process is theorized into an adoption model and grounded in the literature. The findings of the research provide very useful and practical model for administrators to stimulate Faculty motivation as they embark on BL implementation. The model indicates that external and internal environmental factors stimulate Faculty motivation to make a choice regarding the teaching modalities they prefer. It posits that as Faculty members begin to implement teaching process using technology, they become sensitized and begin to internalize the differences between the two teaching modalities/models and thus decide to adopt BL based on the level of implicit and explicit motivational factors that exist within the faculty members and the university.
Abrahams, D. A. (2010). Technology adoption in higher education: a framework for identifying and prioritising issues and barriers to adoption of instructional technology. Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, 2(2), 34–49. https://doi.org/10.1108/17581184201000012
Adekola, J., Dale, V. H. M., Gardiner, K., and Fischbacher-Smith, M. (2017). Student Transitions to Blended Learning: An Institutional Case Study. Journal of Perspectives in Applied Academic Practice, 5(2), 58–65. https://doi.org/10.14297/jpaap.v5i2.273
Alammary, A., Sheard, J., and Carbone, A. (2014). Blended learning in higher education: Three different design approaches. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 30(4). https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.693
Alammary, A., Sheard, J., and Carbone, A. (2016). Blended learning in higher education: Three different design approaches. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology. https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.693
Alghanmi, S. (2014). Investigating the interpersonal and contextual factors govern saudi lecturers’ motivation in creating innovative blended learning environment that web2.0-based. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 13(3), 96–106.
Alhomod, S., and Shafi, M. M. (2013). Success Factors of E-Learning Projects: A Technical Perspective. TOJET: The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 12(2).
Allen, J. D., Towne, S. J. D., Maxwell, A. E., Dimartino, L., Leyva, B., Bowen, D. J., … Weiner, B. J. (2017). Meausures of organizational characteristics associated with adoption and/or implementation of innovations: A systematic review. BMC Health Services Research, 17(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-017-2459-x
Anthony, B., Kamaludin, A., Romli, A., Raffei, A. F. M., Nincarean A/L Eh Phon, D., Abdullah, A., … Baba, S. (2019). Exploring the role of blended learning for teaching and learning effectiveness in institutions of higher learning: An empirical investigation. Education and Information Technologies, 24(6), 3433–3466. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-019-09941-z
Aranyossy, M., and Kulcsár, E. (2020). Blended Learning in Practice: The Impact of an Economic Simulation Game. 7(June), 233–252. https://doi.org/10.33908/EF.2020.2.7
Armonk, B. M., E, N. Y. M., Armonk, J. B. M., and Sharpe, N. Y. M. E. (2005). Organizational Behavior 1: Essential Theories of Motivation and Leadership, Organizational Behavior 2: Essential Theories of Process and Structure, by Organizational Behavior 3: Historical Origins, Theoretical Foundations, and the Future, by John. In Academy of Management Review.
Asunka, S. (2013). Overcoming Barriers to Instructor Adoption of a Learning Management System. In Cases on Educational Technology Implementation for Facilitating Learning (pp. 239–252). https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-4666-3676-7.ch014
Baltaci-Goktalay, S., and Akif Ocak, M. (2006). Faculty Adoption of Online Technology in Higher Education. In The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology-TOJET (Vol. 5).
Battaglino, T. B., Halderman, M., and Laurans, E. (2012). Creating sound policy for digital learning: the costs of online learning. Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 14. Retrieved from http://www.edexcellencemedia.net/publications/2012/20120110-the-costs-of-online-learning/20120110-the-costs-of-online-learning.pdf%5Cnhttp://edexcellence.net/publications/the-costs-of-online-learning.html
Baturina, D. (2015). in Expectation of the Theory: Grounded Theory Method. Metodièki Obzori/Methodological Horizons, 10(1), 77–90. https://doi.org/10.32728/mo.10.1.2015.07
Benson, V., Anderson, D., and Ooms, A. (2011). Educators’ perceptions, attitudes and practices: Blended learning in business and management education. ALT-J: Research in Learning Technology, 19(2), 143–154. https://doi.org/10.1080/21567069.2011.586676
Bohle Carbonell, K., Dailey-Hebert, A., and Gijselaers, W. (2013). Unleashing the creative potential of faculty to create blended learning. Internet and Higher Education. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2012.10.004
Brinkmann, S., and Kvale, S. (2018). Introduction to Interview Research. Sage Research Methods, 2–10. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781849208963.n1
Castro, R. (2019). Blended learning in higher education: Trends and capabilities. Education and Information Technologies, 24(4), 2523–2546. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-019-09886-3
Charmaz, K. (2015). Grounded Theory: Methodology and Theory Construction. In International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences: Second Edition (Second Edi, Vol. 10). https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.44029-8
Chen, W. S., and Tat Yao, A. Y. (2016). An Empirical Evaluation of Critical Factors Influencing Learner Satisfaction in Blended Learning: A Pilot Study. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 4(7), 1667–1671. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2016.040719
Chen, Y., Little, H., Ross, M., and Zhao, Q. (2012). Factors Motivating the Adoption of e-Learning Technologies. Journal of E-Learning and Higher Education, 2012, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.5171/2012.777468
Daengbuppha, J., Hemmington, N., and Wilkes, K. (2006). Using grounded theory to model visitor experiences at heritage sites Methodological and practical issues. Qualitative Market Research, 9(4), 367–388. https://doi.org/10.1108/13522750610689096
Docsa, G., and Szlavik, P. (2015). Opportunities in blended learning-how can simulations boost training programs? 10th IWKM 2015, 13–14 October 2015, Bratislava, Slovakia, 13–14. Slovakia.
Dziuban, C., Graham, C. R., Moskal, P. D., Norberg, A., and Sicilia, N. (2018). Blended learning: the new normal and emerging technologies. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 15(1), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41239-017-0087-5
Friesen, N. (2012). Defining Blended Learning. Learning Spaces, (August), 10. Retrieved from http://learningspaces.org/papers/Defining_Blended_Learning_NF.pdf
Garrison, D. R., and Kanuka, H. (2004). Blended learning: Uncovering its transformative potential in higher education. Internet and Higher Education, 7, 95–105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2004.02.001
Gautreau, C. (2011). Motivational Factors Affecting the Integration of a Learning Management System by Faculty. The Journal of Educators Online, 8(1). https://doi.org/10.9743/jeo.2011.1.2
Gawande, V. (2015). Development of Blended Learning Model based on the Perceptions of Students at Higher Education Institutes in Oman. International Journal of Computer Applications, 114(1), 38–45. https://doi.org/10.5120/19946-1747
Gawel, J. (1997). Herzberg’s Theory of Motivation and Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. – Practical Assessment, Research and Evaluation. Peer to Peer Electronic Journal, 5(11), 3–5.
Gioia, D. A., Corley, K. G., and Hamilton, A. L. (2013). Seeking Qualitative Rigor in Inductive Research: Notes on the Gioia Methodology. Organizational Research Methods, 16(1), 15–31. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428112452151
Glaser, B. G. (2002). Remodeling Grounded Theory. Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 5(2). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-5446.2002.00409.x
Gregory, M. S., and Lodge, J. M. (2015). Academic workload: the silent barrier to the implementation of technology-e…: EBSCOhost. Distance Education, 26(2), 210–230. Retrieved from http://web.b.ebscohost.com.turing.library.northwestern.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=7e4c3908-306f-445b-aee8-cfe0d36b7fdc%40sessionmgr120&vid=1&hid=124
Hakala, I., Härmänmaa, T., Laine, S., and Myllymäki, M. (2017). How Do Students Blend Their Studies Based on Time and Place? EDULEARN17 Proceedings, 1, 2481–2489. https://doi.org/10.21125/edulearn.2017.1520
Halupa, C. (2020). Technology Fatigue of Faculty in Higher Education. (June). https://doi.org/10.7176/JEP/11-18-02
Hewitt-Taylor, J. (2001). Use of constant comparative analysis in qualitative research. Nursing Standard, 15(42), 39–42. https://doi.org/10.7748/ns2001.07.15.42.39.c3052
Hoda, R., Noble, J., and Marshall, S. (2012). Developing a grounded theory to explain the practices of self-organizing Agile teams. Empirical Software Engineering, 17(6), 609–639. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10664-011-9161-0
Ibrahim, M. M., and Nat, M. (2019a). Blended learning motivation model for instructors in higher education institutions. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 16(12). https://doi.org/10.1186/s41239-019-0145-2
Ibrahim, M. M., and Nat, M. (2019b). Blended learning motivation model for instructors in higher education institutions. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 16(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s41239-019-0145-2
Jobst, V. J. (2016). Diving into the Blended Learning Pool: One University’s Experience. Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, 16(4), 89–104. Retrieved from http://ezproxybib.pucp.edu.pe:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eue&AN=120149392&lang=es&site=eds-live&scope=site
Kisanga, D., and Ireson, G. (2015). Barriers and strategies on adoption of e-learning in Tanzanian higher learning institutions: Lessons for adopters. International Journal of Education and Development Using Information and Communication Technology, 11(2), 126–137. Retrieved from https://www.learntechlib.org/p/151845/
Komives, S. R., Longerbeam, S. D., Owen, J. E., Mainella, F. C., and Osteen, L. (2006). A Leadership Identity Development Model: Applications from a Grounded Theory. Journal of College Student Development, 47(4), 401–418. https://doi.org/10.1353/csd.2006.0048
Korkmaz, Ö., and Karakuş, U. (2009). the Impact of Blended Learning Model on Student Attitudes Towards Geography Course and Their Critical Thinking Dispositions and Levels. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology – TOJET Copyright □
The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 8(4), 1303–6521.
Lee, W. I., and Shih, B. Y. (2001). A case study of motivation theory on the web-based learning. Proceedings – Frontiers in Education Conference, 2, F3C/23-F3C/27. https://doi.org/10.1109/FIE.2001.963739
Liu, Q., Geertshuis, S., and Grainger, R. (2020). Understanding academics’ adoption of learning technologies: A systematic review. Computers and Education, 151(February), 103857. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2020.103857
López-Pérez, M. V., Pérez-López, M. C., and Rodríguez-Ariza, L. (2011). Blended learning in higher education: Students’ perceptions and their relation to outcomes. Computers and Education, 56(3), 818–826. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2010.10.023
Maguire, M., and Delahunt, B. (2017). Doing a Thematic Analysis: A Practical, Step-by-Step Guide for Learning and…: Discovery Service for Trinity College Dublin (University). Aishe-J, 3(3), 3351–33514.
Marshall, Stephen, J. (2004). Leading and managing the development of e-learning environments: An issue of comfort or discomfort. Proceedings of the 21st ASCILITE Conference, 1–19. Retrieved from https://immagic.com/eLibrary/ARCHIVES/GENERAL/VUW_NZ/V041208M.pdf
Martins, J. T., and Baptista Nunes, M. (2016). Academics’ e-learning adoption in higher education institutions: a matter of trust. Learning Organization, 23(5), 299–331. https://doi.org/10.1108/TLO-05-2015-0034
Means, B., Toyama, Y., Murphy, R., and Baki, M. (2013). The effectiveness of online and blended learning: A meta-analysis of the empirical literature. Teachers College Record, 115(3).
Medina, L. C. (2018). Blended learning: Deficits and prospects in higher education. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 34(1), 42–56. https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.3100
Mestan, K. (2019). Create a fine blend: An examination of institutional transition to blended learning. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 35(1), 70–84. https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.3216
Mirriahi, N., Alonzo, D., McIntyre, S., Kilgyte, G., and Fox, B. (2015). Blended learning innovations: Leadership and change in one Australian institution. International Journal of Education and Development Using Information and Communication Technology, 11(1), 4–16.
Morse, J. M. (2010). Simultaneous and sequential qualitative mixed method designs. Qualitative Inquiry, 16(6), 483–491. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077800410364741
Moser, F. Z. (2007). Faculty Adoption of Educational Technology: Educational technology support plays a critical role in helping faculty add technology to their teaching. Educause Quarterly, (1), 66–69. Retrieved from https://er.educause.edu/articles/2007/1/faculty-adoption-of-educational-technology
Mozelius. Peter Rydell. Claes. (2017). ILlrE of Blended Learning in Higher Education – The. 6(1), 4–13.
Newton, D., and Ellis, A. (2006). A model for e-learning integration.
Newton, D., Hase, S., and Ellis, A. (2002). Effective implementation of online learning: A case study of the Queensland mining industry. Journal of Workplace Learning, 14(4), 156–165. https://doi.org/10.1108/13665620210427285
Nowell, L. S., Norris, J. M., White, D. E., and Moules, N. J. (2017). Thematic Analysis: Striving to Meet the Trustworthiness Criteria. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 16(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1177/1609406917733847
Ocak, M. A. (2011a). Why are faculty members not teaching blended courses? Insights from faculty members. Computers and Education, 56, 689–699. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2010.10.011
Ocak, M. A. (2011b). Why are faculty members not teaching blended courses? Insights from faculty members. Computers and Education. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2010.10.011
Ocak, M. A. (2011c). Why are faculty members not teaching blended courses? Insights from faculty members. Computers and Education, 56(3), 689–699. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2010.10.011
Owston, R., York, D., and Malhotra, T. (2019). Blended learning in large enrolment courses: Student perceptions across four different instructional models. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 35(5), 29–45. https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.4310
Pavla, S., Hana, V., and Jan, V. (2015). Blended Learning: Promising Strategic Alternative in Higher Education. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 171, 1245–1254. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.238
Pérez, D. A. P., and Riveros, R. A. M. (2010). Unleashing the Power of Blended Learning and Flipped Classroom for English As a Foreign Language Learning: Three Spheres of Challenges and Strategies in a Higher Education Institution in Colombia. Iceri2014: 7Th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation, (November 2014), 2829–2836. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.2559.2725
Picciano, A. G. (2019). Blended Learning: Implications for Growth and Access. Online Learning, 10(3). https://doi.org/10.24059/olj.v10i3.1758
Porter, J. E., Barbagallo, M. S., Peck, B., Allen, L., Tanti, E., and Churchill, A. (2020). The academic experiences of transitioning to blended online and digital nursing curriculum. Nurse Education Today, 87(January), 104361. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2020.104361
Porter, W. W., Graham, C. R., Bodily, R. G., and Sandberg, D. S. (2016). A qualitative analysis of institutional drivers and barriers to blended learning adoption in higher education. Internet and Higher Education, 28, 17–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2015.08.003
Porter, W. W., Graham, C. R., Spring, K. A., and Welch, K. R. (2014). Blended learning in higher education: Institutional adoption and implementation. Computers and Education, 75, 185–195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2014.02.011
Rasskazova, T., Dubina, N., Yedik, N., and Aksenova, V. (2019). Blended Learning in L2: Motivation or De-Motivation? INTED2019 Proceedings, 1(March), 6379–6384. https://doi.org/10.21125/inted.2019.1548
Reeve, J. (2015). Extrinsic Rewards and Inner Motivation. Handbook of Classroom Management, (c), 645–664. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203874783.ch24
Rizvi, N. F., Gulzar, S., Nicholas, W., and Nkoroi, B. (2017). Barriers in adopting blended learning in a private university of Pakistan and East Africa: faculty members’ perspective. MHealth, 3, 18–18. https://doi.org/10.21037/mhealth.2017.04.04
Rowley, J. (2012). Conducting research interviews. Management Reserach Review, 35(3/4), 260–271.
Sadeghi, R., Sedaghat, M. M., and Sha Ahmadi, F. (2014). Comparison of the effect of lecture and blended teaching methods on students’ learning and satisfaction. Journal of Advances in Medical Education and Professionalism, 2(4), 146–150. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25512938%0Ahttp://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=PMC4235559
Sahib, R. (2013). Motivation Among Secondary School Teachers of Chandigarh. 62–65.
Singh, G., and Hardaker, G. (2014). Barriers and enablers to adoption and diffusion of eLearning. Education +
Training, 56(2/3), 105–121. https://doi.org/10.1108/ET-11-2012-0123
Smith, K., and Hill, J. (2019). Defining the nature of blended learning through its depiction in current research. Higher Education Research and Development, 38(2), 383–397. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2018.1517732
Stein, J., and Graham, C. R. (2020). Essentials for Blended Learning. In Essentials for Blended Learning. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351043991
Surry, D. W., and Land, S. M. (2000). Strategies for Motivating Higher Education Faculty to Use Technology. Innovations in Education and Training International, 37(2), 145–153. https://doi.org/10.1080/13558000050034501
Swan, G. (2009). Examining barriers in faculty adoption of an e-portfolio system. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 25(5), 627–644.
Taylor, J. A., and Newton, D. (2013). Beyond blended learning: A case study of institutional change at an Australian regional university. Internet and Higher Education, 18, 54–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2012.10.003
Torrisi-Steele, G., and Drew, S. (2013). The literature landscape of blended learning in higher education: the need for better understanding of academic blended practice. International Journal for Academic Development, 18(4), 371–383. https://doi.org/10.1080/1360144X.2013.786720
Wilson, J., and Morreira, A. (2006a). Incorporating the Motivation-Hygiene Theory as a means of Evaluating b-Learning Environments in Higher Education. Current Developments in Technology-Assisted Education. Retrieved from http://www.roundtable.ac.uk.
Wilson, J., and Morreira, A. (2006b). Incorporating the Motivation-Hygiene Theory as a means of Evaluating b-Learning Environments in Higher Education. Retrieved from http://www.roundtable.ac.uk.
Youn, S., Chyung, Y., and Ed, D. (1999). Analyze Motivation-Hygiene Factors to Improve Satisfaction Levels of Your Online Training Program. 18th Annual Conference on Distance Teaching and Learning, 1–5.
Zhang, W., and Zhu, C. (2016). Review on Blended Learning: Identifying the Key Themes and Categories. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 7(9), 673–678. https://doi.org/10.18178/ijiet.2017.7.9.952