Are Women Better Energy Managers in a Developing Country?

  • Naseha Wafa Qammar University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
  • Zohaib Ur Rehman Afridi U.S Pakistan Center for Advanced Studies in Energy, UET Peshawar
Keywords: Household energy management, energy saving, unseen labor, household appliances, energy consumption


Energy Management at household level is multifaceted issue due to factors involving gender, education and awareness to energy usage. This study was conducted in Peshawar city, Pakistan which is capital city of the province and densely populated. This study identifies the role of women in energy management at household level keeping in view household’s characteristics in an underdeveloped country. The key factors included were (1) education and job status (2) characteristics of nuclear and joint family system (3) energy consumption pattern of the households and (4) awareness of energy management and its implementation amongst the females in the household. One-way ANOVA test shows that women spend more than three hours while utilizing energy appliances. In addition, awareness of high billing cost per unit, electricity consumption during peak hours’ unit, idea of renewable energy sources and their use cum awareness level was found to be extremely low. The results show that the education of husband and wife is indistinguishable and the females are the major decision makers in carrying the household chores. Males are the sole bread winners of the house and majority of the females are housewives despite of attaining higher education. Despite the fact that women are aware of household energy management, there is still a need for full implementation and awareness among women in the household. Lastly, trend of nuclear family system is making pace in the Pakistan and energy management and utility bills are handled independently. The results can be used for policy making in developing countries.


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Author Biographies

Naseha Wafa Qammar, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Naseha Wafa Qammar is a lecturer at department of Electrical Engineering at the City University of Science and Technology, Pakistan. She obtained her M.Sc. degree in Energy Management and Sustainability. Her area of research is energy management at household level, energy poverty studies, renewable energy, and gender equality.

Zohaib Ur Rehman Afridi, U.S Pakistan Center for Advanced Studies in Energy, UET Peshawar

Zohaib Ur Rehman Afridi is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Energy Management and Sustainability of the University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan. He obtained his Ph.D. in Environmental Science and Engineering from Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, and has several publications in international journals. His research interest focuses on waste to energy, anaerobic digestion, wastewater treatment, energy management, and sustainability in policy making.


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