Adapting to a New Reality— Strategies for Building Energy Design in a Changing Climate
Building energy design is traditionally performed using retrogressive data sets (e.g., the past 30 years of weather data). The implied presumption has always been that this data will cycle back and forth around relatively static baseline averages. With increasing evidence that some level of climate change may be occurring, it is natural for building owners, developers, designers, and managers to question whether (and to what extent) these fundamental climate assumptions may be altered in future years. Depending on a building’s locality, this could take the form of increasing or decreasing trends in seasonal average temperatures, daily maximum and minimum temperatures, relative humidity, barometric pressure, wind speed and direction, cloud cover, and total precipitation. These assumptions are crucial, because a typical building must remain habitable for 30 to 50 years (or longer) and provide its owner with the maximum possible return on a sizeable capital investment.
This article will demonstrate how building owners and developers can employ intelligent strategies to maximize energy efficiency while concurrently meeting building energy requirements and retaining significant flexibility to cope with potential variations in local climate. Data from existing buildings that currently exhibit outstanding energy performance (e.g., net zero energy buildings, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design [LEED®] Gold- and Platinum-certified buildings, buildings with ENERGY STAR® ratings above 90) will be utilized to identify energy efficiency and renewable energy production technologies that can further improve energy performance and reduce risk. This article will demonstrate that, by implementing these types of adaptive strategies, the building sector can more nimbly respond to potential climate variations.
Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC), 2010. Definitions: Force Multiplier. DTIC Online. www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/doddict/data/f/8037.html. Downloaded on June 20.
Briller, D.L., 2009. Using LEED® to Facilitate the EISA Goal of Zero Fossil Fuel Use in New Federal Buildings. Presented at the World Energy Engineering Congress. Washington, DC. November 5.
Eckert, J.T., G. Tedhams, and R.S. Dehne, 2010. The Value of Good Design, Case Study: Owens Corning World Headquarters. High Performing Buildings. Owens Corning. Winter.
Eichholtz, P., N. Kok, and J.M. Quigley, 2009. Doing Well by Doing Good? Green Office Buildings. Center for the Study of Energy Markets. University of California Energy Institute. Berkeley, California. August.
Duffy, K., 2008. Making Business Sense, Case Study: Lillis Business Complex, Eugene, Oregon. High Performing Buildings. SRG Partnership. Summer.
Ross, M., Y. Lui, and K. Patten, 2009. Repairing the World, Case Study: Jewish Reconstructionist Congregation, Evanston, Illinois. High Performing Buildings. Ross Barney Architects and EYP Mission Critical Facilities. Summer.
Derks-Wood, C. and L. Girard, 2009. Cooperative Solutions, Case Study: Burns & McDonnell World Headquarters, Kansas City, Missouri. High Performing Buildings. Fall.
Wilde, D., 2009. Rx for Platinum, Case Study: Oregon Health & Science University Center for Health & Healing, Portland, Oregon. High Performing Buildings. Gerding Edlen. Winter.
Hartley, A., 2009. Urban Stewards, Case Study: 641 Avenue of the Americas, New York, New York. High Performing Buildings. Cook+Fox. Winter.
Genest, F. and R. Charneux, 2008. Montreal’s Retail Example, Case Study, Mountain Equipment Co-op® (MEC), Montreal, Quebec. Pageau Morel and Associates. Winter.
West, S., 2009. Transparent Performance, Case Study: Szencorp Building, South Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. High Performing Buildings. Spring.
Carnegie Mellon University (CMU), 2004. Implement Underfloor Air Systems to Potentially Achieve 5 – 34% Annual HVAC Energy Savings and 67 – 90% Annual
Churn Cost Savings, for an ROI of at Least 115%. Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics. Guidelines for High Performance Buildings.
Bischak, S. and A. James, 2008. A Sense of Community, Case Study: Seattle City Hall, Seattle, Washington. High Performing Buildings. Bohlin Cywinski Jackson. Spring.
Seibert, K.L., 2010. An Energy Education, Case Study: Twenhofel Middle School, Independence, Kentucky. High Performing Buildings. CMTA Consulting Engineers. Winter.
Gilmer, L., M. Roskoski, and C. Smith Leon, 2009. Operational Excellence, Case Study: VSP Vision Care, Rancho Cordova, California. Facility Engineering Associates and VSP. Spring.
Rumsey, P., N. Bulger, J. Wenisch, T. Disney, and Rumsey Engineers, 2009. Chilled Beams in Laboratories: Key Strategies to Ensure Effective Design, Construction, and Operation. Laboratories for the 21st Century. www.labs21century.gov/pdf/chilled-beam_508.pdf. June.
Cook, C. and J.L. Garner, 2009. Secure and Sustainable, Case Study: U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s Citizenship and Immigration Service, Omaha, Nebraska. High Performing Buildings. U.S. General Services Administration. Summer.
Schreiber, A., 2009. Better by Design: Stellar Commercial Building, Jacksonville, Florida. High Performing Buildings. Summer.
Rowland, R., T. Kuhn, and J. Hodoway, 2008. Passing on the Gift, Case Study: Heifer International Headquarters, Little Rock, Arkansas. High Performing Buildings. Polk Stanley Rowland Curzon Porter Architects, Ltd. and Cromwell Architects Engineers, Inc. Winter.
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE) and Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA), 2004. Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-rise Residential Buildings. Standard 90.1-2004. Table 6.8.1G. p.50.
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE), 2009. 2009 Handbook—Fundamentals. Chapter 1, “Psychrometrics.” p. 1.15.
Lyons, A., F. Genest, and J. De Grace, 2009. Canada’s Green Prototype, Case Study: Normand-Maurice Building, Montreal, Quebec. High Performing Buildings. Pageau Morel and Associates. Spring.
Seibert, K.L., 2009. Small Steps, Big Savings, Case Study: Plano Elementary School, Bowling Green, Kentucky. High Performing Buildings. CMTA Consulting Engineers. Fall.
Abernathy, R. and R.E. Diaz, 2009. Creating a Legacy, Case Study: Skanska’s Atlanta Office, Atlanta, Georgia. High Performing Buildings. Jova/Daniels/Busby. Winter.
U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), 2010. LEED® 2009 for Existing Buildings Operations and Maintenance. USGBC Member Approved November 2008 (Updated July 2010).
Martin, L., 2009. Taking Care of Tenants, Case Study: 5 Houston Center, Houston, Texas. High Performing Buildings. Wells Real Estate Funds. Winter.
Umstot, D., J.P. Messick, and R. Roesling, 2009. Lean and Green Construction. San Diego Community College District; Sundt Construction, Inc.; and Roesling Nakamura Terada Architects. Slide presentation. April 2.
Dunlop, J., 2009. ASHRAE Research Targets Tying Together BIM, Energy Efficiency. www.ashrae.org/printVersion/print_pressroom.asp?pubID=17243. August 5.
Young, N.W., S.A. Jones, and H.M. Bernstein, 2008. SmartMarket Report: Building Information Modeling (BIM), Transforming Design and Construction to Achieve Greater Industry Productivity. McGraw-Hill Construction.
Park, H., 2005. Computer Simulation Optimizes Displacement Ventilation System in a School Auditorium. CFD Review. October 5.
Park, H., 2004. Computer Simulation Ensures Low Carbon Monoxide Levels in Parking Structure. Flonomix Article Series 104.
Reynall, M., 2008. Flow Simulation Improves Photovoltaic Solar Panel Performance. CFD Review. Flomerics Group, PLC. www.cfdreview.com/article.pl?sid=08/09/12/1630204. September 12.
Horwitz-Bennett, B., 2005. Smoke Control: To CFD or Not to CFD. Consulting-Specifying Engineer. January 1.
Wyman, N., 2005. Simulation Helps Office Workers Stay Warm in Winter, Cool in Summer. CFD Review. March 18.
Ortiz, S., Jr., 2005. Cooling Planning: Tools to Improve Your Data Center Air Flow. Processor. Tech & Trends. Vol. 27, Issue 30. July 29.
Penton Media, Inc., 2009. With Computational Fluid Dynamics, Data Center’s Cooling is Optimized. HPAC Engineering. Feb 1.
DiNola, R. and R. Manning, 2006. The New Look of School Systems: Two LEED® Gold Projects Blend Architecture and Energy Conservation. Environmental Design + Construction. www.edcmag.com. September 1.
Nicklas, M., 2008. Lighting the Way, Case Study: Two Guilford County Schools, Greensboro, North Carolina. High Performing Buildings. Innovative Design, Inc. Winter.
Regents of the University of California, 1994. SUPERLITE 2.0 Lighting Analysis Program. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories (LNBL). Environmental Energy Technologies Division.
Croxton, R., 2008. Head of the Class, Case Study: Rinker Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. High Performing Buildings. Croxton Collaborative Architects, P.C. Winter.
Hydeman, M. and J. Stein, 2003. A Fresh Look at Fans: Preliminary Findings from California Research Project Provide Insight into Fan Design and Energy Savings. HPAC Engineering. p.30. May.
Rumsey, P. and J.F. McLennan, 2005. Computer Modeling: Forge Ahead with Care. Environmental Design & Construction. pp. 55-6. May.
Esberg, G., 2010. Dispelling the Cost Myth, Case Study: Ohlone College Newark Center for Health Sciences and Technology, San Jose, California. High Performing Buildings. Winter.
James J. Hirsch & Associates, 2006. eQUEST™ Version 3.6 and DOE-2.2 Version 44. August 21.
Weidner, S., J. Doerger, and M. Walsh, 2009. Cooling with Less Air: Using Underfloor Air Distribution and Chilled Beams. ASHRAE Journal. pp. 34-40. December.
Franconi, E., 2010. Green Evolution, Case Study: Bethke Elementary School. High Performing Buildings. p.11. Winter.
Fentress, C., G. Gidez, F. Bauman, M. Popowski, D. Dickerhoff, and T. Webster, 2009. Valedictorian, California Department of Education Headquarters—Block 225, Sacramento, California. High Performing Buildings. Fentress Architects, Hensel Phelps Construction Company, University of California at Berkeley, and LNBL. Fall.
Gerding, D., 2008. Conservation Gateway, Case Study: Sweetwater Creek Visitor Center, Sweetwater Creek State Park, Lithia Springs, Georgia. High Performing Buildings. Gerding Collaborative, LLC. Spring.
Hirschfeld, H.H., 2009. Integration of Energy Management, Electrical Submetering, and Time Sensitive Pricing in a Large Residential Community Utilizing Wireless Communications. Presented at the World Energy Engineering Congress. Washington, DC. November 5.
Ott, C.J., 2008. Submetering at Georgetown Mews: Reducing Energy, Changing Behavior. The Green Report. Issue No. 247. July/August.
New Jersey Higher Education Partnership for Sustainability, date unknown. The College of New Jersey: Metering and Management for Energy Savings. www.njheps.org/case-studies/energy/TCNJ.htm. Downloaded June 22, 2010.
Grabowski, J., 2008. Back to the Grid, Case Study: 31 Tannery Project, Branchburg, New Jersey. High Performing Buildings. Noveda Technologies. Spring.
Epstein, K., 2008. How Far Can You Go? Case Study: Pearl River Tower, Guangzhou, Peoples’ Republic of China. High Performing Buildings. Winter.
Rumsey, P. and C. Lotspeich, 2002. Reinventing HVAC Design for Green Buildings. Environmental Design + Construction. January 26.
Lovins, A., 2010. Integrative Design for Radical Energy Efficiency. Structural Engineering & Design Webcast Series. “Designing an Energy-Efficient Future for Existing Buildings.” February 25.
Hammer, W.R., 2008. Old is New Again, Case Study: Cambridge City Hall Annex, Cambridge, Massachusetts. High Performing Buildings. HKT Architects. Spring.
Misel, R., 2009. Elevating Performance, Case Study: Kitsap County Administration Building, Port Orchard, Washington. High Performing Buildings. The Miller/Hull Partnership. Fall.
Perrin Quarles Associates, Inc., date unknown. Reducing Urban Heat Islands: Compendium of Strategies, Green Roofs. EPA, Office of Atmospheric Programs. Climate Protection Partnership Division. Downloaded on September 28, 2010.
United States Library of Congress, 2007. The Packard Campus for Audiovisual Conservation: Campus Features. www.loc.gov/avconservation/packard/features.html. August 3.
University of Illinois and the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2010. Getting Started with EnergyPlus, Basic Concepts Manual. April 20.
Rumsey Engineers, 2001. Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Schematic Design Report, HVAC System. 100% Schematic, Revision 1.1. June 14.
Petersen, D., 2009. Golden Arches, Green Performance, Case Study: McDonald’s Corporate Headquarters Campus Office Building. High Performing Buildings. Jones Lang LaSalle. Fall.
Epstein, K., 2008. NYC’s Living Lesson, Case Study: The Solaire, New York, New York. High Performing Buildings. Summer.