Carbon Emissions of Chiller Systems in Hong Kong Hotels under Climate Change

  • F.W. Yu
  • K.T. Chan
  • R.K.Y. Sit
Keywords: Hotel energy simulation, Carbon emissions, Chiller system, Climate change


Building energy simulation is a common technique to forecast future energy use and develop strategies for meeting carbon reduction targets. The purpose of this study is to analyze the trend of electricity use and carbon emissions of chiller systems—the most energy intensive type of system—using building energy simulation for hotels in subtropical zones under climate change. Based on a typical meteorological year weather file for subtropical Hong Kong, weather data were forecasted for climate change scenarios in 2020, 2050 and 2080. The building simulation program EnergyPlus was used to model a reference hotel with two typical chiller system designs. Simulation results show that a system capacity extension by up to 5% could be considered to satisfy the increasing cooling demand for a 15-year operating span. Various strategies have been discussed for chiller systems to reduce carbon emissions by the demand side. A rigorous carbon intensity target by power companies should be in place to reduce the increasing carbon emissions by hotels in subtropical zones.


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Author Biographies

F.W. Yu

F.W. Yu received his B.Eng. (Hons) in Building Services Engineering and Ph.D. from The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU). From 2004 to 2008, he worked in PolyU for various research projects on developing optimum operation and control of various chiller systems in commercial buildings. He is now a lecturer at Hong Kong Community College, PolyU. His major research interests include HVAC&R system simulation and energy performance of buildings. He can be contacted at

K.T. Chan

K.T. Chan obtained his first degree in mechanical engineering in 1978 from the University of Hong Kong and a M.B.A. degree in 1987 from the Chinese University of Hong Kong. Since graduation in 1978, he has been working in the building services engineering field covering contracting, consulting, teaching and research. He joined the Hong Kong Polytechnic as a lecturer in 1988 in the Department of Building Services Engineering and is now a professor at the university. He acquired his Ph.D. degree in 1996. His current research is on building energy efficiency and operational control. He can be contacted at kwok-tai.

R.K.Y. Sit

R.K.Y. Sit obtained her bachelor and master degrees in Building Services Engineering from The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. After graduation, she has been involved in various building development projects in several consultancy companies. She has taken some visiting lecturer and research associate posts to develop her teaching and research skills in building system simulation. She can be contacted at


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