Renewable Energy in India— Barriers to Wind Energy
As the world moves toward greater development and growth, it is imperative to appreciate the looming ramifications of environmental degradation and ecological imbalances that are caused by atmospheric carbon emissions. The increased negative effects of fossil fuels on the environment has forced many countries, especially the developed ones, to use renewable energy sources. Recently, renewable energy systems have emerged as a clean and easy-to-maintain alternative to the use of diesel engines for rural electrification. Among them wind energy, biomass energy systems and solar photovoltaic (PV) offer capacity and proven technologies to provide continuous and reliable energy. Wind energy, the fastest developing energy source, is renewable and environment friendly. Systems that convert wind energy to electricity have developed rapidly.
Many clean and energy-efficient technologies contribute to sustainable development and energy security in developing economies. However, in practice these technologies are rarely used. Barriers exist that prevent sustainable, energy-efficient technologies from being more widely utilized and having greater market penetration and diffusion. It is absolutely necessary to overcome these barriers. This chapter aims to identify and rank the barriers to greater diffusion of renewable energy systems particularly wind generation. The barriers identified include lack of knowledge about energy sources, higher investment costs, preferences for grid extension projects, lack of arrangements for long-term operation and maintenance, absence of a certification systems for equipment, and lack of financial instruments for renewable energy entrepreneurs.
Our study identifies and ranks the barriers for the diffusion of wind energy in three wind farm clusters in the southern Indian state of Karnataka based on the perceptions and judgements of the various stake holders. Five main barrier groups are considered and their dimensions are recognized before ranking them based on four different criteria using multicriteria decision making. While all barrier groups have significant weights, barriers related to policy, organizatinal form and awareness were found to be the primary barriers. This provides a promising domain for regulatory and political policy interventions to enhance the implementation of wind energy. The results provide evidence of how consumers receive wind energy information and make decisions using their analytical capabilities.
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