Phosphorous Removal Potential of Vertical Constructed Wetlands Filled with Different Filter Materials
Keywords:Filter materials, Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland (VCW) Units, Phosphorous, Dairy Influent, Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT)
This investigation was carried out to observe the effects of filter materials on contaminant removal efficiencies
of Vertical Constructed Wetland (VCW) units. Nine real scale VCW units were operated for a period of 12
months (Jan - Dec 2016) for treating dairy wastewater. All nine VCW units were filled with different sized filter
materials (gravels and sand) and were planted with Arundo donax at surface. The hydraulic retention time (HRT)
for all the units was fixed as 24 h. The major water parameter focused in the present study was total
phosphorous (TP). The findings of this study revealed that all the three filter media (10 mm & 20 mm gravels
and sand) were efficient in removing phosphorus from dairy wastewater. The average concentration of TP in the
dairy influent was recorded as 39.3 ± 9.8 mg L-1. Average TP concentration in gravel filters (CW-1 to CW-6)
were recorded in the range of 16.9 to 18.1 mg L-1 while in sand filters (CW-7 to CW-9), it ranged between 2.2 to
3.9 mg L-1. The reduction of TP in the effluent was more in case of sand filters (2.2 ± 2.6 mg L-1). The removal
rate in sand filters showed noticeable reduction as compared to gravel filters. Maximum removal rate of 94.1%
was also observed in sand filled units while minimum removal was seen in gravel beds (54.7 to 58.1%). Hence,
the results of this investigation recommends the use of sand as the better option for TP removal and a good
alternate for designing VCW in future wetland construction
APHA, AWA, WPCF. (2005). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 21st ed.
American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation,
Arias, C. A., & Brix, H. (2003). Humedales artificiales para el tratamiento de aguas residuales. Ciencia e
Ingeniería Neogranadina, 13(1), 17-24.
Arias, C. A., Del Bubba, M., & Brix, H. (2001). Phosphorus removal by sands for use as media in subsurface
flow constructed reed beds. Water Research, 35(5), 1159-1168.
Bohórquez, E., Paredes, D., & Arias, C. A. (2017). Vertical flow-constructed wetlands for domestic wastewater
treatment under tropical conditions: effect of different design and operational parameters. Environmental
Technology, 38(2), 199-208.
Brix, H., Arias, C. A., & Del Bubba, M. (2001). Media selection for sustainable phosphorus removal in
subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Water Science and Technology, 44(11-12), 47-54.
Cooper, P. (2005). The performance of vertical flow constructed wetland systems with special reference to the
significance of oxygen transfer and hydraulic loading rates. Water Science and Technology, 51(9), 81-90.
Cui, L., Ouyang, Y., Lou, Q., Yang, F., Chen, Y., Zhu, W., & Luo, S. (2010). Removal of nutrients from
wastewater with Canna indica L. under different vertical-flow constructed wetland conditions. Ecological
Engineering, 36(8), 1083-1088.
Egemose, S. (2018). Removal of particulate matter and phosphorus in sand filters treating storm water and
drainage runoff: a case study. Urban Water Journal, 15(6), 1-4
García, J., & Corzo, A. (2008). Water treatment with constructed wetlands: Handbook of design, construction
and operation of subsurface flow wetlands Systems. Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain.
[Available: http://upcommons.upc.edu/eprints/bitstream/2117/2474/1/JGarcia_and_ACorzo.pdf [accessed 15
May 2010] (inSpanish)].
Gruneberg, B., & Kern, J., (2001). Phosphorus retention capacity of iron-ore and blast furnace slag in
subsurfaceflow constructed wetlands. In: 7th International Conference of Wetlands Systems for Water Pollution
Control, vol. 1, University of Florida, Grosvenor Resort, Lake Buena Vista, Florida, November 11–16, p.113–
Huang, X., Liu, C., Wang, Z., Gao, C., Zhu, G., & Liu, L. (2013). The Effects of Different Substrates on
Ammonium Removal in Constructed Wetlands: A Comparison of Their Physicochemical Characteristics and
Ammonium‐Oxidizing Prokaryotic Communities. CLEAN–Soil, Air, Water, 41(3), 283-290.
Knowles, P., Dotro, G., Nivala, J., & García, J. (2011). Clogging in subsurface-flow treatment wetlands:
occurrence and contributing factors. Ecological Engineering, 37(2), 99-112.
Li, M., Zhou, Q., Tao, M., Wang, Y., Jiang, L., & Wu, Z. (2010). Comparative study of microbial community
structure in different filter media of constructed wetland. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 22(1), 127-133.
Marg, J. L. N. Comparison of Different Type’s Media for Nutrient Removal Efficiency in Vertical Upflow
Constructed Wetlands. [http://www.ripublication.com/ijeem_spl/ijeemv4n4_15.pdf]
Journal of Graphic Era University
Vol. 7, Issue 1, 53-63, 2019
ISSN: 0975-1416 (Print), 2456-4281 (Online)
Marín-Muñiz, J. L. (2016). Removal of wastewater pollutant in artificial wetlands implemented in Actopan,
Veracruz, Mexico. Revista Mexicana De Ingenieria Quimica, 15(2), 553-563.
Marín-Muñiz, J. L., García-González, M. C., Ruelas-Monjardín, L. C., & Moreno-Casasola, P. (2018). Influence
of different porous media and ornamental vegetation on wastewater pollutant removal in vertical subsurface
flow wetland microcosms. Environmental Engineering Science, 35(2), 88-94.
Minakshi, D., Sharma, P. K., Rani, A., & Malaviya, P. (2018). Treatment of dairy farm effluent using
recirculating constructed wetland units. In Advances in Health and Environment Safety (pp. 57-66). Springer,
Ríos, C., Gutiérrez, L., & Aizaki, M. (2007). A case study on the use of constructed wetlands for the treatment
of wastewater as an alternative for petroleum industry. Bistua: Revista de la Facultad de CienciasBásicas, 5(2),
Schwager, A., &Boller, M. (1997). Transport phenomena in intermittent filters. Water Science and Technology,
Seo, D. C., Cho, J. S., Lee, H. J., &Heo, J. S. (2005). Phosphorus retention capacity of filter media for
estimating the longevity of constructed wetland. Water Research, 39(11), 2445-2457.
Sharma, P. K., Minakshi, D., Rani, A., and Malaviya, P. (2018). Treatment efficiency of vertical flow
constructed wetland systems operated under different recirculation rates. Ecological Engineering, 120, 474-480.
Sharma, P. K., Takashi, I., Kato, K., Ietsugu, H., Tomita, K., &Nagasawa, T. (2013). Effects of load fluctuations
on treatment potential of a hybrid sub-surface flow constructed wetland treating milking parlor waste water.
Ecological Engineering, 57, 216-225.
Sharpley, A., & Tunney, H. (2000). Phosphorus research strategies to meet agricultural and environmental
challenges of the 21st century. Journal of Environmental Quality, 29(1), 176-181.
Shuib, N., Baskaran, K., &Jegatheesan, V. (2011). Evaluating the performance of horizontal subsurface flow
constructed wetlands using natural zeolite (escott). International Journal of Environmental science and
Development, 2(4), 311-315.
Stottmeister, U., Wießner, A., Kuschk, P., Kappelmeyer, U., Kästner, M., Bederski, O., . &Moormann, H.
(2003). Effects of plants and microorganisms in constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Biotechnology
Advances, 22(1-2), 93-117.17.
Sundaravadivel, M., &Vigneswaran, S. (2001). Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Critical
Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 31(4), 351-409.
Tchnobanoglous G. and Kreiti F (2002). Handbook of solid waste management. 2nd Edition, Mc. Graw – Hill
Inc, New York. [Available: https://sanitarac.pro/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Solid-Waste-Management.pdf]
Uwidia, I. E., &Ademoroti, C. M. A. (2012). Correlation of five–day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and
suspended solids (SS) concentration in wastewaters. Niger. Journal Application Science 30, 119-126.
Vohla, C., Kõiv, M., Bavor, H. J., Chazarenc, F., & Mander, Ü. (2011). Filter materials for phosphorus removal
from wastewater in treatment wetlands- a review. Ecological Engineering, 37(1), 70-89.
Vymazal, J. (2007). Removal of nutrients in various types of constructed wetlands. Science of the Total
Environment, 380(1-3), 48-65.
Westholm, L. J. (2006). Substrates for phosphorus removal—potential benefits for on-site wastewater
treatment? Water Research, 40(1), 23-36