Design and Analysis of Robust Multivariable PI Controller for Paper Machine Headbox Using Particle Swarm Optimisation


  • Parvesh Saini Department of Electrical Engineering
  • Rajesh Kumar Department of Electronics Engineering Graphic Era (Deemed to be University), Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India


Paper Machine Headbox, Multivariable Controller, Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO), Internal Model Control (IMC); Ziegler–Nichols (ZN), Tyreus-Luyben (TL)


Most of the control loops in paper machine are multivariable loops. Due to multivariable nature of the loops,
there is probability that loop have significant interaction. So, the prime objective of designing controllers for
multivariable systems is that the process variations are minimized to get desired response. This paper presents a
multi-variable control system approach to design PI controller using Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO) for
paper machine headbox. Paper machine headbox is a 2-input and 2-output sub-process of paper machine. The
major parameters to be controlled in headbox are Total Head (Pressure) and Stock Level. The performance of
PSO based multivariable PI controller has been compared with three conventional controller tuning techniques.
The performance assessment of multivariable controllers has been done on the basis of time response, frequency
response, performance indices and robustness


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Journal of Graphic Era University

Vol. 7, Issue 2, 132-152, 2019

ISSN: 0975-1416 (Print), 2456-4281 (Online)

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How to Cite

Saini, P., & Kumar, R. (2023). Design and Analysis of Robust Multivariable PI Controller for Paper Machine Headbox Using Particle Swarm Optimisation. Journal of Graphic Era University, 7(2), 132–152. Retrieved from