A Study of Zillennials in Uttarakhand Using RStudio
The purpose of this study is to understand the behaviour of Zillennials. The study has used constructs like personal innovativeness, technological innovativeness, gadget lovers, and technological opinion leadership for gaining insight into the overall behaviour of Zillennials. The study involve quantitative research where descriptive research design is used. This study makes use of both primary and secondary data. Survey research method has been used in this study where primary data is collected through a questionnaire. The questionnaire consists of 16 items where each of these items is evaluated on a five-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree). The data is collected from a sample of 300 students from various colleges of Pithoragarh belonging to the category of Zillennials. Purposive sampling technique is used to collect the data. The study uses descriptive measures of central tendency, cronbach alpha, and confirmatory factor analysis technique. The data is analysed in RStudio with the help of readxl, psych, lavaan, and summarytools packages. The results of this study reveal that Zillennials in Uttarakhand have personal innovativeness and technological opinion leadership. They are also gadget lovers. However, the study made an interesting finding that the Zillennials do not have technological innovativeness. This finding is in contrary to previous findings which suggested that individuals who willingly take challenges are more likely to adopt and use new products. The findings of this study will add academic value in the context of expanding knowledge on Zillennials’ behaviour. The data collected for this study is from students studying in Pithoragarh district of Uttarakhand thus it might not be appropriate to generalize the findings for entire state.
Agarwal, R., and Prasad, J. (1998). A conceptual and operational definition of personal innovativeness in the domain of information technology. Information Systems Research, 9(2), 204–215.
Ahire, S.L.; Golhar, D.Y., and Waller, M.A. (1996). Development and Validation of TQM Implementation Constructs. Decision Sciences, 27(1), 23–56.
Bartels, J., and Reinders, M. J. (2011). Consumer innovativeness and its correlates: A propositional inventory for future research. Journal of Business Research, 64(6), 601–609.
Bassiouni, D. H., and Hackley, C. (2014). ’Generation Z’children’s adaptation to digital consumer culture: A critical literature review. Journal of Customer Behaviour, 13(2), 113–133.
Bernstein, R. (2015). Move over Millennials–Here comes Gen Z. Ad Age.
Bruner, G. C., and Kumar, A. (2007). Gadget lovers. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 35, 329–339.
Bruner, G. C. I. I., Hensel, P. J., and James, K. E. (2005). Marketing scales handbook. Pub: Thomson South-Western.
Cavagnaro, E., Staffieri, S., and Postma, A. (2018), “Understanding millennials’ tourism experience: values and meaning to travel as a key for identifying target clusters for youth (sustainable) tourism”, Journal of Tourism Futures, Vol. 4 No. 1, pp. 31–42.
Childers, T. L. (1986). Assessment of the psychometric properties of an opinion leadership scale. Journal of Marketing Research, 23(2), 184–188.
Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient Alpha and the Internal Structures of Tests. Psychometrika, 16(3), 297–333.
Farrag, D.A. (2017), “The young luxury consumer in Qatar”, Young Consumers, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 393–407.
Fister-Gale, S. (2015). Forget Millennials: are you ready for Generation Z. Chief Learning Officer, 14(7), 38–48.
Flynn, L. R., and Goldsmith, R. E. (1993). A validation of the goldsmith and hofacker innovativeness scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 53(4), 1105–1116.
Fornell, C., and Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 39–50.
Geissler,G. L., and Edison, S.W. (2005). Marketmavens’ attitude toward general technology: Implications for marketing communications. Journal of Marketing Communications, 11(2), 73–94.
Goldsmith, R. E., and Hofacker, C. F. (1991). Measuring consumer innovativeness. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 19(3), 209–221.
Hair, J. F., Black, B., Babin, B., and Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). London: Prentice-Hall.
Katz, E., and Lazarsfeld, P. F. (1955). Personal influence; the part played by people in the flow of mass communications. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
Leavitt, C., and Walton, J. (1975). Development of a scale for innovativeness. Advances in Consumer Research, 2(1), 545–552.
Leonard-Barton, D., and Deschamps, I. (1988). Managerial influence in the implementation of new technology. Management Science, 34(10), 1252–1265.
Merriman, M. (2015). What if the Next Big Disruptor Isn’t a What but a Who? Ernst & Young.
Merriman, M., and Valerio, D. (2016). One tough customer: How Gen Z is challenging the competitive landscape and redefining omnichannel. Ernst & Young Report.
Midgley, D. F., and Dowling, G. R. (1978). Innovativeness – Concepts and its measurement. Journal of Consumer Research, 4(4), 229–242.
Monaco, S. (2018), “Tourism and the new generations: emerging trends and social implications in Italy”, Journal of Tourism Futures, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 7–15.
Myers, J. H., and Robertson, T. S. (1972). Dimensions of opinion leadership. Journal of Marketing Research, 9(1), 41–46.
Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric Theory. New York: Mc- Graw-Hill
O’Leary-Kelly, S.W., and Vokurka, R.J. (1998). The Empirical Assessment of Construct Validity. Journal of Operations Management, 16, 387–405.
Ossinger, J. (2020, November). https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-11-19/-zillennials-are-going-to-change-investing-foreve r-bofa-says. Retrieved May 2021, from https://www.bloomberg.com: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-11-19/-zillennials-are-going-to-change-investing-forever-bofa-says
Rahmayanti, P., Dharmanegara, I., Yasa, N., Sukaatmadja, I., Pramudana, K., Rahanata, G., Giantari, I., and Martaleni, M. (2021). What drives millennials and zillennials continuously using instant messaging? Perspective from Indonesia. International Journal of Data and Network Science, 6(1), 17–26.
Roehrich, G. (2004). Consumer innovativeness concepts and measurements. Journal of Business Research, 57(6), 671–677.
Rogers, E. M. (1995). Diffusion of innovations (4th edition). New York. The Free Press.
Rogers, E.M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations. New York. The Free Press.
Rogers, E. M., and Cartano, D. G. (1962). Methods of measuring opinion leadership. Public Opinion Quarterly, 26(Fall), 435–441.
Schlossberg, M. (2016). Teen Generation Z is being called’millennials on steroids,’and that could be terrifying for retailers. Retrieved, 9, 2016.
Shoham, A., and Ruvio, A. (2008). Opinion leaders and followers: A replication and extension. Psychology and Marketing, 25(3), 280–297.
Thakur,R., Angriawan,A., and Summey,J.H. (2015). Technological opinion leadership: The role of personal innovativeness, gadget love, and technological innovativeness. Journal of Business Research, 33, 1–10.
Van den Bergh, J., and Behrer, M. (2016). How cool brands stay hot: Branding to Generations Y and Z. Kogan Page Publishers.
Wood, S., 2013. Generation Z as consumers: Trends and innovation.