Evaluation of Different Hybrid Distributed Generators in a Microgrid—A Metaheuristic Approach

  • T. Som Department of Power Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata
  • N. Chakraborty Department of Power Engineering, and former Dean Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata
Keywords: DERs, SPS, BMGU, Microgrid, Modified Differential Evolution


An economic estimation of an autonomous power delivery system constituting different types of non-conventional and renewable energy resources has been performed considering an Indian load demand scenario. The mathematical analysis was done by the application of a modified differential evolution (MDE). The MDE-evaluated total annual costs for the autonomous microgrid system utilizing three sets of distributed energy resources (DERs) have been compared. Solar module and fuel cells as DERs form the first set of DERs; solar module and bio-mass gasifier unit as DERs is considered as second set; and fuel cell along with Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) constitute the third set of DERs. Different types of consumers together form the microgrid with optimal supply of power from DERs. The optimal power generation conditions have been obtained pertaining to minimum cost of microgrid system. For the same load demand in microgrid operation, the results, using a hybrid solar-biomass system are found to be most cost effective. A reduction of 6.9 % in the annual cost is obtained using the combination of solar module and biomass gasifier unit from that obtained using a solar module fuel cell combination. The corresponding reduction is 10% from that utilizing only fuel cell.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

T. Som, Department of Power Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata

T. Som was born in Karagpur, India, on 8th October 1982. She received her Bachelor of Electrical Engineering in 2005 from Institute of Technical Education and Research, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar. She did her Master on Power Engineering in 2008 from Jadavpur University, Kolkata. At present she is working as a senior research fellow in Department of Power Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata. The contact email-id is trinasom@gmail.com.

N. Chakraborty, Department of Power Engineering, and former Dean Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata

N. Chakraborty was born in Kolkata, India on 27th August 1964. He received his Bachelor of Electrical Engineering in 1986 and Master of Electrical Engineering in 1989 from Jadavpur University, Kolkata. He was awarded with the Diploma of Imperial College (DIC), London, UK, and PhD degree from University of London in 1999. At present he is a Professor in the Department of Power Engineering, and former Dean Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata. His fields of research interest include power economics and deregulation, non-conventional generation and environment, novel materials and applied superconductivity. The contact email-id is chakraboty_niladri2004@yahoo.com.


R. Lasserter, A. Akhil, C. Marnay, H. Stephens, J. Dagle, R. Guttromson, A.S.

Meliopoulous, R. Yinger, J. Eto, “The CERTS Microgrid Concept,” White paper

for CERTS, 2002.

C.A. Hernandez-Aramburo, T.C. Green, N. Mugniot, “Fuel consumption minimization

of a microgrid,” IEEE Trans. Ind Appl, vol. 41(3), pp. 673–681, 2005.

C. Marnay, G. Venkataramanan, M. Stadler, A.S. Siddiqui, R. Firestone, B. Chandran,

“Optimal Technology Selection and Operation of Commercial-Building

Microgrids,” IEEE Trans. power systems, vol 23(3), pp 975, 2008.

H. Michiel, H. Petra, I. Bouwmans, “Socio-Technical Complexity in Energy

Infrastructures Conceptual Framework to Study the Impact of Domestic Level

Energy Generation, Storage and Exchange,” in Proc. 2006 IEEE Systems Man, and

Cybernetics Int Conf., pp. 8 -11.

Distributed Generation in Liberalized Energy Markets, IEA, http://iea.org/


M. Maribua, K. Firestone, M. Ryan, C. Marnay, A.S. Siddiquica, “Distributed

energy resources market diffusion model,” Elsevier Energy Policy, pp 4471-4484.

W.D. Patterson, J. W. Whitham, The Virtual Power Plant, Standard & Poor’s Utilities

& Perspectives Special Technology, McGraw-Hill Co, 1998.

S. Watson, R. Fredericksen, T. Lorencz, “Chicago Power Park Project, Monthly

Status Report,” 2001. http://www.nemw.org

F. Marin, A.B. Rey, A. Guerrero, A.F. de. Ruz, “A future microgrid implementation

based on renewable distributed resources for a clean green energy production,”

in Proc. 2002 IEEE PES Winter Meeting, CERTS Int Conf., pp. 305-308.

C. Marnay, F. Robio, A. Siddiqui, “Fuel Consumption Minimization of Microgrid,”

in Proc. 2001 IEEE PES Winter Meeting, pp. 150-153.

A.P.S. Meliopoulos, “Challenges in simulation and design of grids,” in Proc.

IEEE PES Winter Meeting, pp. 309–314.

Y. Zoka, A. Sugimoto, N. Yorino, K. Kawahara, J. Kubokawa, “An economic

evaluation for an autonomous independent network of distributed energy resources,”

Int Journal of Electric Power System Research, vol 77(7), pp 831-838, 2007

V. Miranda, D. Srinivasan, L.M. Proenca, “Evolutionary Computation in power

system,” International Journal of Electric power & Energy System, vol 20(2), pp 89-

, February 1998. [14] I.A. Farhat, M.E. El-Hawary, “Optimization methods applied for solving the

short-term hydrothermal co–ordination problem,” Int Journal of Electric Power

System Research, vol 79(9), September 2009.

K.K. Mandal, M. Basu, N. Chakraborty, “Particle swarm optimization-based

fuzzy satisfying method for economic environmental dispatch of hydrothermal

power systems,” International Journal of Automation and Control, vol (3)pp 216-

, 2009.

L. Chen-Ching, T. Dillon, “State of the art of expert system application to

power systems,” International Journal of Electric power & Energy system, vol 14(2-

,pp 95-96, April-June 1992.

M.R. AlRashidi, M.E. El-Hawary, “Application of computational intelligence

techniques for solving the revived optimal power flow problem,” Electric Power

System Research, vol 79(4), pp 694-702, April 2009.

Price, K.V.: An introduction to differential evolution, New Ideas in Optimization,

McGraw-Hill, 1999

Mezura-Montes, E. Velazquez-Reyes, J. Coello Coello, C.A.: Modified Differential

Evolution of Constrained Optimization, IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation

Sheraton, July 2006

“Fuel Cells for Distributed generations,” Tech Report. Marketing Summary:

Energy Center of Wisconsin, March 2000.


I. Staffel, “Performance Review of Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell,” (2007).


J.M. Feret, J.L. Kelly, A.J. Pereira, M.K. Wright, A.K Kush, Fourth Annual Fuel

Cells Contractors Review Meeting, Westinghouse PAFC Program House,1992.

F.A. Farhat, M.G. Simoes, Itegration of Alternative Sources of Energy, John Wiley &

Sons, Inc., 2006.

A.B. Bhattacharya, S.K. Kar, R. Bhattacharya, “Diffuse Solar Radiation and associated

meteorological parameters in India,” Ann. Geophysicae Springer-Verlag, vol.

, pp. 1051-1059, 1996.


A.C. Caputo, M. Palumbo, P.M. Pelagagge, F. Scacchia, “Economics of Biomass

Energy Utilization in Combustion and Gasification Plants: Effects of Logistic

Variables,” Biomass and bio energy. Elsevier, vol. 28, pp 35-51, 2005.

C.Z. Wu, H. Huang, S.P. Zhengh, X.L. Yin, “An economic analysis of biomass

gasification and power generation in China,” Bioresource Technology, Elsivier,

vol.83, pp. 65-70, 2002.

A. Oudalov, R. Cherkaoui, A. Beguin, “Sizing and Optimal Operation of Battery

Energy Storage System for Peak Shaving Application,” IEEE Powertech, paper

no. 561, July. 2007.

N.H. Ravindranath, P. Balachandra, “Sustainable Bioenergy for India: Technical

economic and policy analyses” International Journal of Energy, vol. 34, pp 1003-

, 2009.

R. Banerjee, “Comparison of Options for Distributed Generation in India,” International

journal of Energy Policy, Article in Press.

Storn R. and Price. K, ‘Differential Evolution—a simple and Efficient Heuristic

for Global Optimization over continuous space’, Journal of Global Optimization,

Vol. 11, pp 341-359, 1997

Stron R, ‘On the usage of Differential Evolution for function optimization’, proceedings

in Biennial Conference of North America Fuzzy Information Processing

Society (NAFIPS), pp. 519-523 (1996).

J.S. Derman, F. Pettersson, “Structural and operational optimisation of distributed

energy systems,” Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 26. pp 1400-1408, 2006.


J.D. Pandya, K.K. Ghosh, S.K. Rastogi, “A Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Coupled

with Biogas,” Energy, vol. 13(4), pp.383-388, 1988.

E. Carlson, R. Zogg, P.E. Sriramulu, K. Roth, J. Brodrick, “Using Phosphoric Acid

Fuel Cells For Distributed Generation,” ASHRAE, vol. 49, 2006.

A. Oudalov, D. Chartouni, C. Ohler, G. Linhofer, “Value Analysis of Battery Energy

Storage Applications in Power Systems,” in proc. 2006 2nd IEEE PES Power

Systems Conference and Exposition.

L. Goldstein, B. Headman, “Gas-Fired Distributed Energy Resources Technology

characterization,” Tech Report the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is Directing Programs.

Private communication: E & M State Head Office, IIT Kharagpur, West Bengal,