Alternative Energy Options for India— A Multi-criteria Decision Analysis to Rank Energy Alternatives using Analytic Hierarchy Process and Fuzzy Logic with an Emphasis to Distributed Generation

  • Sanjeev H. Kulkarni KLS Gogte Institute of Technology, Belgaum-08, Karnataka, India
  • Bhairu J. Jirage KLS Gogte Institute of Technology, Belgaum-08, Karnataka, India
  • T.R. Anil KLS Gogte Institute of Technology, Belgaum-08, Karnataka, India
Keywords: Renewable energy, sustainability, multi-criteria, decentralized, fuzzy sets, electrification


Several studies have been performed in last many years as to which type of energy source would be suitable for extending energy access for remote rural areas. Energy planning using multi-criteria analysis has attracted the attention of decision makers for a long time. Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) techniques are attractive in problems having multiple and conflicting objectives. This article develops a methodological framework providing insights to suitability of multi-criteria techniques in the context of operation energy alternatives namely Central Grid/Grid Extension, Solar Home Systems and Microgrids in India. The model was built using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) with empirical data from various sources. Several parameters like generation cost, price, losses, reliability, capacity, availability, and constraints (geological/local) were investigated. Based on the scheme developed by Saaty—the AHP and Fuzzy Sets using MATLAB these multi-criteria are evaluated and compared. The analysis were carried out under two scenarios namely—environment and cost. Finally alternatives for energy generation were ranked based on the AHP and Fuzzy logic. The results indicate that MICROGRID is the ideal choice among the alternatives for energy generation in a decentralised way and is a possible solution for eliminating energy poverty.


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Author Biographies

Sanjeev H. Kulkarni, KLS Gogte Institute of Technology, Belgaum-08, Karnataka, India

Mr. Sanjeev H. Kulkarni, corresponding author, is an assistant professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at K.L.S. Gogte Institute of Technology Belgaum under Visvesvaraya Technological University (VTU), Belagavi, Karnataka, India. He holds a bachelor’s degree in mechanical engineering and has done his masters (M. Tech) in Energy Systems Engineering. His fields of interest include renewable energy systems, energy strategy and management, wind energy systems, fluids and biomass gasification. Email:

Bhairu J. Jirage, KLS Gogte Institute of Technology, Belgaum-08, Karnataka, India

Mr. Bhairu J. Jirage is a faculty member in the Department of Mathematics at the K.L.S. Gogte Institute of Technology Belagavi, Karnataka, India. He has done M.Sc from Karnataka University Dharwad in the year 2009 and since then is in teaching profession His field of interest includes Applied Mathematics and presently he is working on Numerical Solutions of Hydrodynamic Lubrication (NSHL) as part of his research work. E-mail:

T.R. Anil, KLS Gogte Institute of Technology, Belgaum-08, Karnataka, India

Dr. T.R. Anil is a professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at K.L.S. Gogte Institute of Technology, Belgaum, Karnataka, India. His Ph.D. is in the area of producer gas carburetor under Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belagavi. Presently he is guiding research students in the field of biomass gasification, turbochargers and in the field of renewable energy. His fields of interest include biomass gasification, fuels for IC Engines, renewable energy, etc. E-mail:


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